The rise of the Alt-Right inside and outside of the Republican Party

Journal of Religion and Public Life Mar. 2018. Questia. Web. 8 Nov. 2018.

McCaffree, Kevin. “When Secularism: Becomes a Religion: The Alt-Left,

During the 2016 presidential elections, when Donald Trump was running against Hillary Clinton, Hillary Clinton, who till then, had been loathed by the conservative movement for over two decades, found few conservatives endorsing her views on trade and foreign policy. In late August, Clinton had one of the most bizarre experiences of heckling when someone from the crowd shouted “Pepe!” and asked her to leave; for the uninitiated, Pepe is a cartoon frog and a ubiquitous internet meme that was created on the now defunct social-media website called MySpace. The stoned-looking frog soon became the mascot of the Alt-Right [short for the alternative right]. The alt-right is a term that white supremacist Richard Bertrand Spencer coined, which evolved into a movement supported by well-educated young people, often called white nationalists. Anybody with a strong sense of white identity who believes in the significance of white solidarity and has a marked sense of white victimization is touted as an alt-right supporter. The movement frequently finds support among educated, middle-class whites living with their parents and unable to find employment. Consisting of bloggers, vloggers, and social media personalities, this group primarily consists of white millennials who know how to wield the power of the internet to spread hate speech and justifications for their extreme ideology. When the Author asked Spencer to describe who the supporters of the Alt-Right ordinarily are, he said that they are mainly secular, but that doesn’t mean you have someone who is a traditionalist and has a traditionalist Catholic or Protestant background now. And thirty years old, a tech professional, and an atheist who lives on the coasts.                                                                                                            

Because the Alt-Right is a new movement, it has a lot of similarities with conservatism and libertarianism, especially paleoconservatism, much like the white supremacist movement Ku Klux Klan which was discouraged and suppressed in the South during the Reconstruction era but disappeared and returned with the release of the 1915 film The Birth of a Nation. The Klan, withdrawn from the public over the decade, revived in the civil-rights era by using terrorist means. Its membership, however, began to dwindle in size; by 2016, only a few scattered groups were remaining. Attributed to the rise and evolution of other white racial groups by the end of the twentieth century. American Nazi Party, formed by George Rockwell in 1959, had never won an election and had to close down after his murder. One of the other white supremacist groups included is the National Alliance, founded by William Pierce in 1974, which, again, could not sustain itself after he died in 2002. Likewise, Aryan Nations, led by Richard Butler and formed in the 1970s, has been under a million-dollar lawsuit brought against it by the Southern -Poverty Law Center, damaged since 2000. Because these groups were mainly forerunners to the Alt-Right, it may be said that they support white nationalism                                                                                                                                                                        

   Paleoconservatism and Neoconservatism: Precursors to the Alt-right or Parallels to it?                                                                                                                                                        

Paleoconservatism was a threat to the mainstream conservative movement that became visible in the 1980s because of the rising influence of neoconservatism within the broader conservative movement.

  Because their views were moderate on issues like race and the welfare state but more hawkish on foreign policy, Neoconservatives were deemed responsible for the shift in the Republican Party to a more ideological path… The paleoconservatives, however, continued with the conservative project.                                                                                                                          

Ronald Reagan, appointed as the chair of the National Endowment for the Humanities {NEH} and Mel Bradford, who had academic credentials and a [Ph.D. from Vanderbilt, were pioneers of these two conservative movements within the spectrum of American conservatism. Bradford defended the Confederacy particularly, expressed controversial views when conservatism was trying to move away from its racist past., And dismissed equality as a just, appropriate political goal. Reagan had withdrawn from countering Bradford on this sub-ideology with some careful investigation, which was a sign that paleoconservatives were insignificant and liable to be expelled from the mainstream conservative movement. Following this, the paleoconservatives placed their expectations on Patrick J. Buchanan, who had the potential to take control of the Republican Party and lead it to success. The paleocons essentially trace their ancestry back to the Old Right and against New Deal liberalism; when despite the first American movement in the early 1940s, this group opposed the States’ entry into World War.11 because, in the 1980s, the Old Right started calling themselves paleoconservatives. They were also collated as a reaction to neoconservatives who were liberal Marxist Leninist intellectuals, mainly  Jewish and Catholic, wielding influence in the right-wing think tanks under the Reagan administration when the Cold War ended in 1989-1991. The paleocons condemn U.S. military interventionism and the U.S.-Israel alliance along with free trade, open borders, and the welfare state…  Paleoconservatives stand for European Christian culture; some even became white supremacists because they had little to no support from the elite and were frozen out of political power.        

They, however, had a lot of support in Pat Buchanan’s campaigns during the 1992 and 1996 Republican primaries, whereby paleocons began building anti-immigrant and neo-Confederate movements in the 1990s. They also found some support from the Patriot movement since former Congress Member Ron Paul had embraced paleocon positions on culture and foreign policy. After September 11, 2001 attacks which invoked military interventionism with neoconservatives playing a role in some, the Bush administration reinforced paleocons’ position as political outsiders… Even the National Review condemned Pat Buchanan for anti-Semitism and his criticism of Israeli policies [in early 2016, National Review had an entire issue dedicated to condemning Donald Trump’s political views, which ran in line with Buchanan’s ideology back in the 1990s].  Paleoconservatives like the Alt-Right, emboldened by their antagonism toward the conservative movement}  wished to change conservatism rather than demolish it. In a chapter in one of Pat Buchanan’s books titled” The End of White America,” Paleoconservatives were almost religious traditionalists. In contrast, the Alt-Right is secular and sometimes anti-christian as well. Interestingly, Paul Gottfried, a Jew, and Richard Spencer’s mentor, have been a neoconservatism critic despite not being an anti-Semite and rejecting white nationalism. Sam Francis was one of the other known paleoconservatives who influenced the Alt-Right. While he worked for the Heritage Foundation and had an editorial position at the Washington Times, he was not welcome in the mainstream conservative movement. Consequently, he fell in line with the Alt-Right, represented mainly by paleoconservatives.    

Libertarianism is one of the philosophies opposing the Alt-Right because it is an individualist ideology denouncing all identity politics. Murray Rothbard, a libertarian economist, who joined the paleoconservatives by supporting Buchanan in the presidential race, was also an anti-egalitarian.. Rothbard wrote an essay titled[ Egalitarianism as a Revolt against Nature] wherein he argued that equality, in his view, was impossible to achieve. Hans-Hermann Hoppe, who had written the much-famed book called[ Democracy, The God That Failed], argued that democracy was not an ideal standard to seek. Instead, in his opinion, there should be a monarchy… Hoppe disapproved of mass immigration but was somewhere treading the middle ground between libertarianism and the Alt-Right. There is not much difference between the Alt-Right and the Alt-Left because they are both social justice warriors…                        

In stark contrast to Alt-right, the Alt-Left accepted as valid the concept of universal human rights in the 18th century and fervor for equality during the French Revolution. Michele Foucault’s portrayal of the dominant group penetrates and founds the basis of their power, and of course, this is the Nietzschean view that life is a ruthless struggle for control. The alt-left philosophy is mainstream in finding a place even in everyday life. For instance, the Frankfurt School has been influential in using this philosophy of Critical Race Theory and Feminist Theory to reframe university social sciences and infuse a new life into the humanity departments. Herbert Marcuse also embodies Alt-Left ideology by refusing to allow platforms to those he considers fascists. As he writes in his [ The Oppressed], continued existence is more important than preserving abused rights and liberties that grant constitutional powers to those who oppress these minorities.]                                                                                                                                                    

                              The political left and the right have a lot in common.                                                                                                                                                                          

They both believe that institutions are corrupt and abusive [ Alt-Left, which condemns the patriarchy system espoused by the white supremacists] Alt-Right:  which condoms Cathedral or swamp]. 

Both believe Equality is impossible [ Alt-Left: due to historical oppression; Alt-Right: due to biological differences between man and woman, and between races.]

Three, Democracy is impossible[ Alt-Left: the system is rigged by the wealthy, cisgender white man] Alt-Right: the masses are too easily manipulated.]  

Four, People’s identity is resolved by their groups’ social or biological history.[ Alt-Left: women as a group under the more significant race\ ethnic groups and LGBTQIA people; Alt-Right:  European and Western culture.] 

Five, People are power hungry and manipulative] Alt-Right white people are driven by the desire to oppress racially and dominate others, particularly with the men desiring to dominate women; Alt-Left women and minorities are motivated by a desire for racial domination and cultural control.]  

In his book Rules for Radicals, Saul Alinsky, a part of the Alt-left, compares himself to Lucifer. The Alt-Left and the Alt-Right see the institution of science as unstable; the Alt-Left views are anti-intellectual on restricted or evolutionary research and exploring differences between men and women, races, or societies, whereas the Alt-Right regards undesirable any sociological or social-psychological research into intergenerational poverty, inequality, and stigma.  Alt-Right are mostly atheists,  although their worldview is not part of secular Enlightenment or irreligious and anti-Christian ideologies.                                                                                                                                    

Baron Evola, better known as Julius Evola, is one of the right-wing thinkers and is controversial in the modern world, whereby he rejects liberalism.  [We don’t belong to the liberal family; he states He was raised in a devout Catholic family in Sicily.  Evola’s books are mostly centered on bringing back Tradition, an example of the some [ Revolt Against the Modern World]. Herein, he argued that political conservatism is impossible in a democratic age. Alain de Benoist, too was a theorist of the European New Right. While Benoist deliberately overlooked Christianity, Evola the concept of believing in a person despite his criticisms of Christianity which were essentially political and not theological, in stark contrast to Benoist and the alt-right that were religiously anti-christian. 

The alt-right is one hundred years old, and its birth started in 1918 with Oswald Spengler’s book The Decline of the West. Spengler is the alt-right’s cultural critic, whereas Julius Evola is a political mystic.      

Thomas Carlye is one of the philosophers who invented the term  ‘dismal science’ to classify economics and economists in his day to navigate the free market, free trade, and human rights. One of his more prominent books was 1840 [On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History]. Carlyle was not a socialist [although he was an early Marxist] and opposed classical liberalism, Adam Smith, and John Stuart Mill. Thinkers like  Fichte, Hegel, Spengler, Gentile, and Schmitt were socialists and nationalists who did not favor capitalism or communism. They endorsed strong-man politics immersed in pseudo-science and occultism while detesting bourgeois liberalism.  Francis Parker Yockey, a Nazi sympathizer, also had connections in European extreme-right politics. In the same way, Yockey, inspired by Oswald Spengler,  the author of [Decline of the West,] perceived the Jews as corrupters of liberalism, democracy, and socialism. Yockey did not influence neo-Nazis then because  George Lincoln Rockwell called him a neo-Strasserite while he wanted an alliance with the far left.                           

                                               Alt-Left or Alt-Right? The Grey Areas

                                                                                                                                                                                                Mainstream conservatives have for years criticized political correctness and immigration while supporting 

   trade protectionism and opposing foreign interventionism. However, Alt-Left is more libertarian and believes in Western Civilization’s superiority. Despite this inclination, the Alt-Left is much closer to the Alt-Right than traditional conservatives, given the commonality in perception on issues revolving around Islam and immigration. Milo Yiannopoulos, who is a homosexual, considers himself and say he is a conservative and not part of the Alt-Right, despite starting as a troll on Twitter.                                                                                        

Yiannopoulos has, nevertheless, been labeled as Alt-Right by the Alt-Left media and even the leader of the Alt-Right. He has, however, clarified that he does not desire to promote the Alt-Right as do white nationalists, considering he is also a half-Jewish gay man. His 2016 article [ An Establishment Conservatives Guide to the Alt-Right,] Which he co-authored with Allum Bokhari, remains the representation of the movement. Yiannopoulos worked for Breitbart until 2017.                                                                                                                                                                                          

Gavin Mclnnes is classified as New Right. 

Lauren Southern is an internet personality and Canadian political activist of the New Right who posts videos on YouTube. , Lauren worked for Rebel Media until March 2017 and ran for the Libertarian Party in the Canadian Federal election, where she supported the Alt-Right white identitarian group Defends Europe in 2017. Has been denied entry into the U.K. under the Terrorism Act and banned from the country. This has, however, not stopped her from getting a visa and going on a speaking tour of New Zealand and Australia in 2018.                                                                               

The tour in Australia went well despite the Department of Home Affairs desisting Southern from having an Electronic Authority visa stating it was not a working visa because she would charge $79 for the ticket and up to $749 for dinner. In comparison, her New Zealand tour was unsuccessful because Auckland Council had banned her from using its venues and was acknowledged by 1.000 alt-left protestors to promote controversial ideologies. Although Southern and YouTuber Stefan Molyneux did plan to visit Auckland’s North Shore in early August to address the crowd, the tour was canceled by Phil Goff, Mayor of Auckland, who declared that the Auckland Council would not allow them to use city premises to promote hate speech, despite Southern denying that her views were hate speech. Southern has been labeled as alt-right, for right and right-wing despite claims that she is not alt-right.                                                                                                                               

Stefan Molyneux was born in Ireland and moved to Canada.  Post attending Glendon College of York University, he became an actor at Glendon and a member of the Debating Society. He also obtained his B.A. in  History from McGill University and was involved in the McGill Debating Union. He also has an M.A. in History from the University of Toronto.  In 1993 Molyneux and his brother Hugh founded Caribou Systems, which was sold off in 2000. In 2005 Molyneux started his podcast Freedomain Radio which has over 240 million views.   Molyneux to has been painted as alt-right alt-right by the Alt-left media, especially Politico, Metro, NY Magazine, and CBS,  although he denies that he is part of the alt-right movement. Because he is a philosopher of life and the times that everyone is living in now, he operates on the non-aggression principle, a free market system, and covers issues surrounding these areas.

There was a culture war against cultural Marxism, an ideology by the alt-left social justice warriors, but where did the name come from, since no socialist country practiced or promoted identity politics? Stalin introduced patriotism during the Great Patriotic War to fight the Germans and keep the spirit of the Russian people alive 

 because most. Eastern Bloc countries behind the Iron Curtain were practicing nationalism at the time.                                                                                                                                                                             

Although William Lind of the Free Congress Foundation gave a speech in 1998 [ The Origins of Political Correctness] linking political correctness and cultural Marxism as totalitarian. After this, cultural Marxism has been used much more; Kevin MacDonald, a psychology professor at the State University of California, also advocated cultural Marxism in the 1990s with his obsession with Jews.  He published a book in 1998 titled [A People that Shall Dwell Alone: Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strateggy] Because he believed Jews surpass non-Jews in wealth creation and accumulation. This won him a loyal base comprising white nationalists and led to an outcry over his anti-Semitism, removing him from Cal State-Long Beach in 2008.                                                                                                                                                     

The Alt-Right is now a global phenomenon around the world. For instance, the alt-right in Australia infiltrated the National Party and tried to go mainstream in politics around the immigration debate from the third world. The anti-establishment New Nationalism is sweeping the West, turning the World upside down. 

Rose, Matthew. “The Anti-Christian Alt-Right.” First Things; A Monthly he Alt-Right, and Moral Righteousness.” Skeptic (Altadena, CA) Fall 2017: 36+. QDelton, Jennifer. “Not Your Grandfather’s Right.” Salmagundi Winter/Spring 2018: 83+. Questia. Web. 8 Nov. 2018.

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Wegmann, Philip. “Religious Right, Meet Alt-Right: Steve Bannon to Headline Value Voters Summit.” Examiner (Washington, D.C.), The 6 Oct. 2017. Questia. Columbia University Press Publishers Since 1893 New York    Chichester, West Sussex Copyright © 2017 Columbia University Press All rights reserved

Hawley, George. Making Sense of the Alt-Right (p. iv). Columbia University Press. Kindle Edition. 

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